Dr. Alexandra Diehl
Dr. Alexandra Diehl is DSI Fellow from June 2020 to May 2021:
Visual Tools Based on Citizen Data for Improving the Communication of Severe Weather Events
According to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), the indirect economic losses caused by climate-related disasters increased by over 150 % during 1998–2017 compared to the period 1978– 1997 . Among the most prominent high-impact weather events are flooding, storms, and heatwaves. Scientists need to improve the accuracy and communication of weather forecasting to reduce or even avoid the damage caused by these kinds of weather hazards. To know even a few hours in advance about the place and intensity of weather hazards can help to mitigate the consequences of natural disasters, save lives, and prevent economic losses. Very-short-term weather forecast techniques, known as nowcasting, are vital tools in this endeavor, but they are not yet accurate enough in many regions, or fail to cover certain areas because there are no sensor data available. In this context, the availability of trustworthy observations coming from citizens can play a new decisive role. Citizens continuously generate an enormous amount of digital content of diverse kinds such as blog posts, tweets, as well as photos and videos. People tend to proactively participate in digital media and communicate this kind of high-impact events in internet channels such as social media, news feeds,and citizen science projects, which represents a huge opportunity to improve current weather forecasting.To be able to use this information, scientists need methods to assess and quantify the quality of citizen data. The high-dimensionality and complexity of citizen data make the use of purely automated and algorithmic approaches for quality assessment challenging and insufficient. Currently, it is computationally intractable to consider all possible hidden and yet essential features that citizens may have included in the data by only using algorithms. To tackle this challenge, we propose a combined approach of visualization, modeling and data analytics to (i) generate a ground truth of weather events based on social media and citizen science data, (ii) analyze the topological traits of the emergent activity of users in social media in the presence of severe meteorological outbreaks, and (iii) visually explore the model results and assess their quality, as first steps towards a systematic approach for the quantification of citizen data in the context of weather events.
The project will tackle those challenges unifying two different approaches, citizen science and social media analytics. For this purpose, we will design a mobile citizen science application considering perceptual visual cues to collect data about high-impact weather events, and gather common terminology used by citizens when they refer to weather events and weather conditions. The second approach will consist of the analysis of social media data and initial modelling of social networks to extract useful information associated to high-impact weather events, identify expert users among the social networks, and individualize key thematic terms and associated emotions. The outcome of this project will consist of (i) a percetually-based visual design of a mobile application for citizen science on high-impact weather events, (ii) a visual analytics tool to integrate citizen science and social media data, the open source code, and anonymous and aggregated data sets used for research, according to the current GDPR regulations and Swiss laws on data privacy.
 P.Wallemacq and R. House. UNISDR and CRED report. economic losses, poverty and disasters 1998–2017. brussels: Centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED), 31, 2018.
Website: Dr. Alexandra Diehl
Dr. Jamie L. Gloor
Dr. Jamie L. Gloor is DSI Fellow from September to December 2020:
Artificial Intelligence and Anxiety in Employees
As a new and relatively unknown entity, Artificial Intelligence (AI) may inspire anxiety and aversion in employees. Because it is increasingly involved in organizational practices (oftentimes unbeknownst to employees), however, AI may be unavoidable. As with other aspects of workplace modernization and change management, leaders can play a key role in shaping employee responses to and eventual acceptance of AI. Thus, in a series of studies, we aim to examine leader behaviors that improve-and impair-employees' algorithm anxiety and aversion.
Website: Dr. Jamie L. Gloor
Prof. Dr. Thomas Lampoltshammer
Ass.-Prof. Dr. Thomas Lampoltshammer conducts research from February to May 2020 at the DSI on the following project:
The effects of digitisation are currently being felt more than ever. While this paradigm shift was initially seen as a technical problem, it is now already a central component of strategic governance concepts and thus the core of the new value proposition (Li et al., 2017, Grover et al., 2018). This influence on value creation has also been recognised by the European Commission. The European Commission speaks of an annual economic growth of approximately €415 billion to promote employment, competition, investment and innovation in the EU, supported by concepts such as the Digital Single Market and related regulations such as the Single Digital Gateway Regulation (SDGR). The ability of a company to use the corresponding networks - especially for SMEs, since they have comparatively fewer resources to fall back on - is therefore becoming a critical component (Battistella et al., 2017; Parida et al.,2017). By expanding network capacities, companies are able to react promptly to market changes and thus to dynamic demands on resources and, in addition, to identify new lines of business more quickly and make them usable (Acosta et al., 2018). It is precisely the strategic management of internal and external networks (and information flows) that allows SMEs to increase their performance, reduce overhead in processes, thereby saving costs and ultimately also to share and participate in shared knowledge (Lin & Lin, 2016) - see Open Innovation (Chesbrough, 2003).
The project addresses the tension between 'exploitation' and 'exploration' and the resulting performance effects (Acosta et al., 2018) in companies. A complementary approach could unite both advantages (Kristal et al.,2010), but many companies fail at this hurdle (Solís-Molina etal., 2018), also due to the necessary and, depending on the framework conditions, very heterogeneous demands on structure and resources (Gonzalez et al., 2018); this applies in particular to SMEs, as these usually have very limited resources (Junni et al., 2013). Digital networking can help SMEs here to improve their performance, especially towards a 'Digital Platform Capability' (Cenamor et al., 2019). The project supports this approach by using state-of-the-art methods of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Social Network Analysis (SNA). By projecting these methods to the concept of stigmergy it will be possible to make use of the online self-representation of the companies and to formulate and validate a conceptual innovation network along the thematic orientations of the companies and their competences.
Website: Prof. Dr. Thomas Lampoltshammer
Dr. Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux
Dr. Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux is DSI Fellow from January to December 2020. Her research project is:
Decision-Making by Machines: Regulatory Strategies to Address the Unwanted Side-Effects of Automated Decision-Making
The objective of Aurelia’s fellowship period is to investigate which regulatory strategies can be employed to address the unwanted side-effects of automated decision making. To do so, the project first takes stock and assesses the issues surrounding automated decision-making, and elaborates upon side-effects such systems entail for individuals and society at large. In a second step, this research project classifies the regulatory approaches taken so far to address the identified side-effects of automated decision-making (e.g., information requirements, standards on how to evaluate training data, individual rights to object to decisions by machines, impact assessment requirements, technical explainability mechanisms, algorithmic due process, oversight provisions). The analysis of legal, technical, and organizational measures available shall provide insights on what mix of regulatory approaches is necessary to address the unwanted side-effects of automated decision-making.
Website: Aurealia's ORCID ID
Prof. Dr. Walther Zimmerli
Prof. Dr. Walther Zimmerli will be a DSI Fellow in the Spring and Fall Semesters 2020.
The digitalization of society has its origin in the universities and research institutions; it is currently being shown that they are also recursively being taken in by digitalization: The process of digitalization is de facto in the process of getting full circle back to the universities and research institutions, without them always being aware of the fact. The term 'virtual university', which first of all meant a tertiary educational institution in the sense of Ivan Illich's concept of de-schooling a tertiary eductional institution without real substrates such as buildings, institutions etc. and was later associated with terms like 'Open University', Distance learning', 'University of the Air' etc. ("Virtualization of the first order"), thus recursively receives a second, digitalized level of meaning. The question is no longer only: How do tertiary educational institutions make use of digital, electronic media?, but: How will a comprehensive digitalization of these possibly change facilities themselves?
The project RD2VH, which is to be carried out in the spring and autumn semester of 2020 within the framework of the Digital Society Initiative (DSI), is a philosophical-theoretical project that is directed towards differentiating this question historically and epistemologically from a critically reconstructed concept of digitalization into its dimensions in cognitive science, education and institutional theory. The aim is to develop a theoretical model of virtual universities of the second order in which
experience in implementing the concept of a virtual university of the first order can be incorporated. The focus is more precisely on the area of continuing education.
Whether and to what extent this model can be empirically validated and translated into recommendations for action of a pilot experiment will be left to the next step.
The institutional USP of this project lies in the fact that it is already located at the intersection of the activities of the Digital Science Initiative (DSI) and the Center for Higher Eduction and Science Studies (CHESS) of the UZH through the person of the applicant, and therefore promises to be able to use the resulting synergies.
Website: Prof. Dr. Walther Zimmerli
Dr. Olexandr Nikolaychuk
Dr. Olexandr Nikolaychuk is a DSI Fellow from October 2020 to March 2021:
Recycling uncast votes as a means of increasing voter turnout
Sufficient voter turnout is a desirable property of a healthy democratic system. Unfortunately, historical data show that a sizable portion of the eligible electorate tends to abstain.
This project aims to increase voter turnout by leveraging important insights from behavioral economics as well as personal and social psychology. The general proposition is to augment the current vote counting rule in the following manner: uncast votes are not ignored but rather, randomly allocated among the alternatives.
An intervention of this kind has a number of advantages: it does not require citizens to reveal their private information or restrict their freedoms (as opposed to, e.g., obligatory voting), it is not distortive under plurality voting and would be rather straightforward and economical to implement in real life. The main effect in curbing abstention relies on leveraging such psychological phenomena as the endowment effect, moral responsibility and group identity.
As such, the project considers the empirical effect of several variations of the innovative behavioral intervention. Altogether, three studies are planned: an online survey and two laboratory experiments.
Website: Bingjie Cheng
PD Dr. Markus Christen
Website: PD Dr. Markus Christen
Website: Armand Kapaj
Dr. Michele Loi
Website: Dr. Michele Loi
Dr. Sara Maggi
Website: Dr. Sara Maggi
Dr. Ian Ruginski
Website: Dr. Ian Ruginski
Prof. Dr. Abraham Bernstein
Website: Prof. Dr. Abraham Bernstein
Prof. Dr. Sara Irina Fabrikant
Webseite: Prof. Dr. Sara Irina Fabrikant
Prof. Dr. Mike Martin
Our aim is to have a contextualizable overall picture of health and quality of life in old age. Digitalization now enables an inexpensive and innovative extension of the monitoring of quality of life and health. The existing data are poor in situational and contextual information, and are relatively rarely collected. In order to systematically and comprehensively implement the central functional capacity of individual persons as a supply target in the WHO model of "Healthy Ageing" (2016), close observations in the real-world context are required. This requires an investment in a research infrastructure for responsible health research with high data density, in digital competences of older people to use their health data and in transdisciplinary research groups consisting of health, technology, legal and context/humanities scientists to develop causal relationships between the collected information. These causal models are a prerequisite for reducing care costs in the area of coordination-intensive illnesses alone by hundreds of millions of Swiss francs a year.
Participatory Health Research
With digitalization and open science, more and more information is being made available to an increasing number of people for health decisions. Competences for the selection and critical evaluation of research results must therefore also be available to all in society. We are working together with the Center for Gerontology and the UZH/ETH Citizen Science Center Zurich to create the framework conditions for the participatory evaluation, conception and implementation of health research projects.
Website: Prof. Dr. Mike Martin
Prof. Dr. Florent Thouvenin
Website: Prof. Dr. Florent Thouvenin
Prof. Dr. Claudia Witt
Website: Prof. Dr. Claudia Witt